Every time you smoke a cigarette toxic gases pass into your lungs, then into your blood stream where they spread to every organ in the body. A cigarette is made using a tobacco leaf which contains nicotine and a variety of other compounds. As the tobacco and compounds burn they release thousands of dangerous chemicals including over forty known to cause cancer. Cigarette smoke contains the poisonous gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide along with trace amounts of cancer causing trace amounts of radioactive particles. All forms of tobacco are dangerous including cigars, pipes and smoke less tobacco such as chewing tobacco and snuff. Nicotine is an additive chemical in tobacco, after you inhale tobacco smoke nicotine flows through the bloodstream to the brain where it induces pressure able feeling. When repeatedly exposure your brain to nicotine it becomes desensitized, making to crave more and more nicotine just to feel normal.
Major Health Effects of Smoking
Smoking causes death
People who smoke typically die at an early age than non smokers. In fact one of every five deaths is linked to cigarette smoking. The risk of major health problems increases dramatically including heart attack, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer.
Smoking and cardiovascular diseases
Smoking causes cardiovascular disease. When nicotine flows through your adrenal glands it stimulates the release of epinephrine, a hormone that raises blood pressure. In addition nicotine and carbon monoxide can damage the lining of inner walls in your arteries. Fatty deposits called plague can build-up at these injury site and become large enough to narrow the arteries and severely reduce blood flow resulting in arthrosclerosis. In coronary artery disease arthrosclerosis narrows the arteries that supply the heart which reduces the supply of oxygen to heart muscle, increasing the risk for heart attack. Smoking also raises your risk for blood clot.
Smoking and Peripheral vascular disease
Smoking increasing the risk of peripheral vascular disease, which atherosclerotic plagues block the large arteries in arm and leg. Smoking can also cause an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which is a swelling or weakening of aorta where it runs through abdomen.
Smoking and lung disease
Smoking damages two main parts of lungs i.e airways also called bronchial tubes and small air sacs called alveoli. With each air travels down your windpipe called the trachea and enters your lungs through bronchial tubes air then moves into thousands of alveoli where oxygen from the air moves into your blood stream and waste product carbon dioxide moves out of the blood stream. Cigarette smoke irritates the lining of bronchial tubes causing them to swell and make mucus. Cigarette also slows the movement of cilia causing some of the smoke and mucus stay in your lungs. Over time chronic bronchitis develops as the cilia stop working airways become clogged with scars and breathing becomes difficult. Smoking also damages alveoli making it harder for oxygen and carbon dioxide to exchange with your blood.
Smoking and cancer
Cigarette smoking contains atleast 40 cancer causing substances called carcinogens including cyanide, benzene and ammonia. The toxic chemicals can damage the DNA in healthy cells. As a result your damaged cells create new unhealthy cells which grow out of control and may spread to other parts of your body. The most common cancer in the world is lung cancer with over million new cases are diagnosed every year.
Harmful chemicals in cigarettes can cause cancer in other parts of your body in the blood and bone marrow, mouth, larynx, throat, oesophagus, stomach, pancreases, kidney, bladder, uterus and cervix.
Other health concerns about smoking
Smoking can cause infertility in both men and women. If a women is pregnant and smokes during pregnancy she exposes her baby to cigarettes poisonous chemicals causing a greater risk of low birth weight, miscarriage, preterm delivery and still birth. Smoking is also dangerous if a mother is breast feeding the nicotine enters the baby through milk. Other health effects of smoking include low bone density and increased risk for hip fracture among women.