Hematoma is an abnormal collection of the blood cells outside the blood vessel. Hematoma generally occurs when the wall of the blood vessels, artery, vein or capillary has been damaged and blood has leaked into tissues.
Hematomas are usually small in appearance and are filled with just a dot of blood. Hematoma can also appear large in size and can cause significant swelling. The blood vessels undergo constant repair in your body. Your body will be able to repair the damage that is caused due to minor injuries.
Fibrin patches are formed by your body by activating the blood clotting cascade. In few cases, repair fails resulting in extensive and large defects leading to constant bleeding. When there is a great pressure within the blood vessel it leads to continuous bleeding.
Hematoma is categorized into 2 different types based on the location. The hematomas that appear inside the skull are very dangerous and can lead to complications. In few rare cases these hematomas can impair the normal brain functions. The most common types include:
Trauma caused to the temple, the place where the middle meningeal artery is located can lead to epidural hematoma. Bleeding generally accumulates in the epidural space which is considered as the lining of the brain. Small hematomas can cause brain injury in few rare cases.
Subdural hematoma occurs because of trauma, but the injury is usually caused to the veins in the brain. This condition results in slower leak of blood that enters the subdural space below the dura. Blood gets accumulated in the space below the dura before affecting the brain functions.
The visible symptom of hematoma generally depends on the location, size and swelling. Hematomas can appears anywhere in your body. The most common symptoms include:
What Causes a Hematoma?
There are many different factors that can cause hematoma. The most common cause of hematoma is trauma. Trauma to tissues can be caused due to an aggressive sneeze or an unexpected twisting movement of an arm or leg.
When a blood vessel gets damaged, it can leak blood into the surrounding tissues. The blood generally tends to coagulate and clot when it is leaked out of the blood vessels. The size of the clot depends on the amount of blood that is leaked out of your blood vessels.
The common conditions that can result in hematoma include:
Blood thinning medications and anticoagulants can increase the potential of spontaneous bleeding. Certain medications cannot repair the blood vessels as it will allow the blood to continually leak through the damaged areas.
Acute subdural hematoma is caused due to ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Cerebral aneurysm is commonly called as brain aneurysm which is caused to microscopic damage to artery walls, tumours, and trauma and drug abuse.
- Decreased number of platelets in bloodstream
The diseased conditions that can decrease the number of platelets in your blood can increase the risk of hematoma and other major health issues. Other diseases that can cause spontaneous bleeding include:
- Aplastic anaemia
- Excess alcohol drinking.
- Vitamin D deficiency.
- Orthopaedic injuries
Orthopaedic injuries can also result in blood leakage leading to hematoma.
- Other causes
The common conditions that cause hematoma include:
- Pelvic bone fracture
Pelvic bone fracture can result in frequent bleeding as it takes a large amount of force to break these bones. When the pelvic bone breaks, the nearby veins and arteries also get damaged resulting in hematoma.
In few rare cases, menstruation blood that gets accumulated in the vagina forms blood clots instead of flowing out. This formation of blood clots