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Know More about Gardner’s Syndrome

Know More about Gardner
Atefa Noorain
Atefa Noorain
January27/ 2017

Gardner’s syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to benign or cancerous growth. Gardner’s syndrome is a subtype of familial adenomatous polyposis which eventually leads to colon cancer. Non cancerous growth is seen on different parts of your body.

These non cancerous growths tend to increase with age. In few rare cases eye lesions can also occur on your retina. The non cancerous growth also referred as polyp. The number of polyp growth varies from person to person and the parts.

Gardner’s Syndrome Causes

Gardner’s syndrome is an inherited condition that caused due to the defects in APC gene. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) are a type of gene that mediated the production of APC protein. APC protein is responsible for regulating cell growth by preventing the cells from dividing too fast. Defects in APC gene leads to abnormal tissue growth.

Gardner’s Syndrome Risks

The risk of Gardner’s syndrome is more when either of the parents is carrying the defected gene. A spontaneous mutation in APC gene is comparatively less common in Gardner’s syndrome.

Gardner’s Syndrome Symptoms

The common symptoms of Gardner’s syndrome include:

  • Diarrhea
  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Intestinal polyps
  • Epidermoid cysts
  • Dermoid tumors
  • Multiple growths in your colon
  • Development of extra teeth
  • Appearance of bony tumors on the skull and other bones
  • Cysts under your skin
  • Fibroma and epithelial cysts
  • Osteomatosis
  • Retinal pigment epithelium hypertrophy
  • Benign soft tissue tumors
  • Polyposis
  • Fibrous dysplasia of the skull
  • Abdominal pain

Gardner’s Syndrome Diagnosis

Gardner’s syndrome can be cured on early diagnosis. The common diagnostic methods used for Gardner’s syndrome include:

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Genetic testing
  • GI tract endoscopy
  • Imaging tests are done to diagnose the long bone that may show osteomas
  • Eye examination
  • Colon screening

Gastrointestinal tract endoscopy helps in determining the presence of multiple colon polyps. The blood tests are generally used to determine the APC gene mutations.

Garner’s Syndrome Treatment

There is no complete cure for Gardner’s syndrome; treatment is generally done to reduce the risk of developing cancer. Regular screening of polyps is done to determine whether the tumor is associated with Gardner’s syndrome.

Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy is mostly done to after the polyps are diagnosed. Colonoscopy is done annually until colectomy. Colectomy is generally recommended only when more than 20-30 polyps are identified in your body. Treatment mainly depends on the type and size of the tumors.

A healthy lifestyle and proper nutritious diet helps in speeding up the healing process of Gardner’s syndrome.

Gardner’s Syndrome Prevention

Parents carrying either defective gene can transfer the gene to the next generation easily. Genetic counseling is required for the parents carrying a defective gene, before they plan for a baby. Genetic screening helps them in identifying the presence of a defective gene in your body. Genetic counseling enables you to know the risk and complications that can result due to the defective gene.

Atefa Noorain
Atefa Noorain

Atefa Noorain, (Microbiologist) former Head of the Department of Life Sciences, Assistant Professor of Microbiology at Sujatha Degree College for Women. She worked as an Associate Research Analyst at Thomson Reuters and an Associate Editor of two research journals. She has presented her research work in 3 International Conferences. She has written articles for national journals and international journals. She had been felicitated as a Young Speaker in the last conference. She has worked on Nanoparticles as a part of her research project and won the Best Scientist of the Day award.

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